Nursing Models

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In general, the Self-Care Deficit Theory by Dorothea Orem hypothesizes that people can engage in self-care activities and will only seek help when they face challenges; a nurse's primary role is to fill in the gaps (Younas, 2017). In the model, Orem assumes that human beings maintain a continuous connection and communication with their environment as a means of remaining functional, they deliberately act to identify personal needs and make necessary decisions, and that a related human group will take an initiative to care for members to keep it functioning optimally.

The major components of this theoretical model include nursing, humans, environment, health, self-care, and nursing system, among others. The model defines nursing as the art of offering specialized assistance to humans (men, women, or children) who can no longer do it for themselves (Younas, 2017). The environment, with biological, chemical, and physical features, comprises family or even the community. Health is simply referred to as a state of wholeness or soundness both in terms of structure and function. Self-care includes all activities that a person initiates on their own to maintain a state of wholeness.

Two major strengths of the theoretical model include the fact that it is too generalizable and flexible; thus, both an armature practitioner and advanced professionals can understand and apply its tenets. The theory also grounds nursing practice and covers the discipline in all areas, including education and administration, while clearly defining when nursing is required (Younas, 2017). On the other hand, its major weakness is that it fails to recognize the ever-changing nature of health and requirements and also ignores the emotional needs of humans. Lastly, it could be complicated and confusing since self-care is defined in many terms, including agency, demand, deficit, requisites, as well as universal self-care.

Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing is among the most prominent nursing theories. Its main aim is to outline the provision of nursing as a science, with a person conceptualized from a holistic point of view. While at it, she assumes that a person’s environmental and self-awareness is grounded in their feelings and thought processes, matter, and energy as critical systems exhibit higher levels of intricate self-organization, and meaning and consciousness characterize the environment and integration of a person (Jennings, 2017). On the same note, it is the decisions and actions of human beings that account for creative process integration. Relationships that characterize a system are interdependence, protection, and even acceptance. The theory is also grounded on philosophical assumptions, including the existence of a mutual and cordial connection between people, God, and the world, and that human beings get meaning from a universal omega point of convergence.

Among the major concepts include person, environment, health, nursing, and adaptation. Humans, as holistic beings, constantly interact with their environment and respond to various stimuli. The environment involves conditions determining human behavior (Jennings, 2017). Health is the continual ability of humans to adapt to stimuli while nursing functions to promote the adaptation of individuals and quality life.

One strength of the model is that it points to multiple causes of related situations, making it highly suitable in tackling multi-faceted issues facing human beings. The clear and simple tenets guide nurses in using observation and personalized examination of every person in various settings. Its major drawback is from the fact that it is too exhaustive and elaborate, thus requiring much time and effort to understand and apply appropriately. It also has numerous concepts, both actual and philosophical, which may be confusing and difficult to understand, especially for beginner nurses. Drawing a relationship and relevance of the various ideas requires profound knowledge.

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GradShark (2023). Nursing Models. GradShark.

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